We see that the incidence of personality disorders has increased in recent years due to changes in sociocultural and family relations. In addition, personality disorders cause important problems in family relationships, social and professional adaptation. This has led attention to personality disorders. However, while the belief that nothing can be done before personality disorders is common, it has become increasingly treatable.

What is Personality?

Personality is the whole of unique patterns of emotions, thoughts, attitudes and behaviours that distinguish a person from others and are exhibited in all areas of functionality. In addition, the present moment has traits and tendencies that cannot be explained by the biological situation or social environment.

What is Personality Disorder?

Personality disorders are a continuous pattern of internal experiences and behaviours that deviate significantly from the expectations of the individual’s culture. These deviations manifest themselves especially in differences of opinion (in the way one interprets oneself, others and events), differences in affect (range, intensity, variability and appropriateness of emotional responses), problems experienced in interpersonal relationships and difficulties in impulse control.

Personality disorder causes a decrease in functionality in many areas. He/she sometimes changes relationships frequently and sometimes maintains problematic, violent and harassing relationships for a long time.

When the researchers conducted are examined, it is reported that the prevalence of personality disorders is between 10-30%. Personality disorders are detected in approximately 15% of inpatient psychiatric patients and 30-50% of outpatient patients.

Individuals with personality disorders are reported to be more involved in crime, alcohol-substance use and suicide rates than the general population. In addition, personality disorder is common with mood disorders, anxiety disorders, eating disorders.

Causes of Personality Disorders

There is no single cause of personality disorders. It is thought that many genetic, biological, environmental and psychological factors develop by mutual interactions and combinations. Relationships with parents in early childhood are one of these.

Personality Disorders Symptoms

There are different types of personality disorder, and the symptoms seen in each personality disorder differ from each other. However, there are some situations that we should pay attention to. In particular, personality disorders should not occur due to another mental disorder. Because changes in personality traits may be the first symptoms of disease that occur in neurocognitive disorders, memory disorders, and Alzheimer’s dementia.

CLUSTER A CLUSTER B CLUSTER C
Paranoid Personality Disorder Antisocial Personality Disorder Avoidant Personality Disorder
Schizoid Personality Disorder Borderline Personality Disorder Dependent Personality Disorder
Schizotypal Personality Disorder Histrionic  Personality Disorder Obsessive Compulsive  Personality Disorder
Narcissistic  Personality Disorder

Cluster A Personality Disorders

Paranoid Personality Disorder

Its main feature is that they interpret others’ behaviour as malicious and are constantly in distrust and skepticism. The prevalence rate has been reported to be between 0.5-2.5% in the general population, 10-30% in inpatient psychiatric institutions and 2-10% in outpatient psychiatric treatment institutions.

  • Suspect that others are exploiting, deceiving or harming them without a sufficient basis.
  • They deal with unfounded doubts about the loyalty and reliability of their friends or colleagues to themselves.
  • They do not want to open up to others because they fear that what they say will be used against them.
  • They think that the words and behaviours said against them have hidden meanings.
  • Unjustly doubts the loyalty of their spouse or lovers and constantly suspects that they are deceiving themselves and taking care of others.
  • When there is no reason, some perceive others’ behaviour as an attack on their personality or reputation and suddenly respond or counterattack with anger.

Schizoid Personality Disorder

The main characteristics of these people are that their social relations are weak and they refrain from expressing their feelings in front of others. It usually begins in young adulthood.

  • They do not want to enter into close relationships, including being a member of the family, nor do they like close relationships.
  • They almost always prefer to do the activity by themselves.
  • They enjoy very little activity, even if they engage in other activities, and seem indifferent to others’ praise or relationships.
  • They are seen in emotional coldness, disconnection or a uniform affect.

Research on incidence is insufficient. Because they will not want to participate in the studies, and there are very few clinical applications. In addition, schizoid personality is one of the most resistant personality structures to medication approaches. However, when they are directed to activities of which they are interested, they can establish social relations over time.

Schizotypal Personality Disorder

Its main feature is the presence of cognitive or perceptual distortions that occur under different conditions and behaviours that are outside the scope. It usually begins in the young adult period. The incidence in the general population is 3%.

  • There is social and interpersonal inadequacy
  • Strange unusual traits in their thoughts and behaviours are incomprehensible people with magical, strange, telepathic beliefs.
  • Their relationship is restricted. They show signs of temporary psychosis under stress.
  • It may be in unusual perceptual experiences involving bodily illusions. For example, he/she may feel that his/her hand is heavier than it is.
  • He/she does not have many close friends or confidants other than first-degree relatives. They do not want to establish very close social relations. He/she can be too close or distant with everyone.

Cluster B Personality Disorders

Antisocial Personality Disorder

Its main feature is that they behave in a manner that has been going on since the age of 15, not respecting the rights of others and violating the rights of others. It is seen in 3% in men and 1% in women in the general population.

  • They repeatedly engage in actions that pave the way for their arrest, cannot keep up with laws and forms of social behaviour and do not respect them.
  • Demonstrate attitudes such as constantly lying, using aliases, or cheating on others for personal gain and pleasure.
  • They are impulsive and do not make plans for the future.
  • Demonstrate irritability and aggression, especially with repetitive fights, fights, or attacks.
  • They show indifference to the safety of themselves or others.
  • They show a constant irresponsibility, determined by the fact that they are unable to carry out a job or repeatedly fail to fulfill their financial obligations.
  • Despite having harmed, misbehaved or stolen something from someone else, they do not feel remorse, determined by being indifferent or providing reasonable explanations for what they have done.
Borderline Personality Disorder

Their main characteristics are that they have difficulty controlling their impulses together with inconsistencies in interpersonal relationships, sense of identity and affection. While the prevalence in the society is 2-3%, they constitute 30-60% of the cases of personality disorder in psychiatric clinics. It is more likely to be seen in women than men.

  • Exaggerate efforts to avoid a real or imaginary abandonment.
  • They have inconsistent interpersonal relationships between the extremes of over-expansion and submergence.
  • Continuously has an inconsistent sense of self or sense of self.
  • They exhibit impulsivity in at least two areas (e.g. spending money, sexuality, substance abuse, reckless driving, binge eating) that are likely to harm themselves.
  • They demonstrate recurrent suicide-related behaviours, attempts, intimidation, or self-harm.
  • There is uncertainty (affective instability) in affect depending on the presence of a significant reactivity in the mood.
  • They constantly feel empty.
  • They feel inappropriate, intense anger or cannot control their anger.
  • They may show signs of transient paranoid thinking associated with stress.
Histrionic Personality Disorder

The main feature of hysterical personality disorder is that these people seek excessive emotionality and attention in almost every field. In the general population, prevalence is 2-3%, and in psychiatric clinics is 10-15%.

  • They are uncomfortable when they are not the center of attention.
  • Interactions with others are often marked by inappropriately sexually seductive or seductive behaviours.
  • They exhibit emotions that change rapidly and remain superficial. Their emotions change very easily. They can cry while laughing or start laughing while crying.
  • They constantly use their physical appearance to attract attention.
  • Extremely, they have a form of speech that is aimed at influencing others and lacks detail.
  • They show off, pretend and show their emotions with extreme exaggeration.
  • They are susceptible to suggestion and are easily influenced by others or events.
  • They think that their relationship should be closer than it is.
Narcissistic Personality Disorder

Its main feature is arrogance in behaviour or fantasy, the need to be admired and the inability to understand the feelings of others. In the general population, prevalence is 2-6%.

  • They carry the feeling that they are very important (for example, they exaggerate their achievements and abilities and expect to be known as a superior person without sufficient success).
  • They reflect on dreams of unlimited success, power, intelligence, beauty or perfect love.
  • They believe that they are special and unique and that only other individuals (or institutions) with a superior private or social situation can understand them or should only be friends with them.
  • They want to be liked very much.
  • They have a sense of entitlement: Adapting to the expectations or expectations that a form of treatment will be applied that will be favored by him/her.
  • Uses interpersonal relationships for their own interests; uses the weaknesses of others to achieve their own goals. They are often jealous of others and believe others are jealous of them.
  • Exhibits arrogant, arrogant behaviours and attitudes.

Cluster C Personality Disorders

Avoidant Personality Disorder

Its main features are feelings of inadequacy and social inhibition with hypersensitivity to negative evaluation. It occurs in 0.5-1% of the general population and 10% of psychiatric clinics.

  • Avoid activities that require a lot of interpersonal relationships for fear of being criticized, disliked or excluded.
  • They do not want to get involved with people unless they are sure they are loved.
  • They are jammed in close relationships for fear of embarrassment or ridicule.
  • They reflect on whether they will be criticized or excluded in social situations.
  • Due to feelings of inadequacy, they are inhibited when they are in the same environment as new people.
  • They see themselves as socially incompetent or inferior to others.
  • They do not want to take personal initiatives or participate in new activities because they may be embarrassed. After all, they do not make an effort to meet people, participate in social events and be with people because of their fear that they will eventually be embarrassed.
Addictive Personality Disorder

Its main feature is the need to take extreme care of the fear of separation and abandonment. It is the most common personality disorder in mental health clinics. However, for the most part, they can apply for some other disorders, not for dependent personality disorder. If they do not receive plenty of advice and support from others, they may have difficulty making their daily decisions.

  • They need others to take responsibility in most areas of their lives.
  • They have difficulty in saying that they do not share the same opinion with others, fearing that they will lose their support or will not be accepted.
  • They have difficulties starting designs or doing business on their own due to fears about whether they are doing it right or their abilities.
  • They go so far as to want to do unpleasant things to ensure the care and support of others.
  • They feel uncomfortable or helpless when left alone due to extreme fears that they will not be able to take care of themselves. They often fear that when they lose their family members, their parents, they will not be able to stay alone and cope with life.
  • When close relationships end, they immediately seek another relationship as a source of maintenance and support.
Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder

Its main feature is to overthink regularity, perfectionism, being in control in mental and interpersonal relationships. Due to these efforts, their productivity decreases considerably since they are not flexible and open. It occurs 1% in the general population and 3-10% in psychiatric clinics.

  • They make details, rules, lists that make them forget the main purpose of the activity, and they deal with sorting, organizing or programming.
  • They demonstrate perfectionism that makes it difficult to complete the work (for example, they are unable to complete a bill because its specific extreme strict criteria are not met).
  • They dedicate themselves to work or productivity to the extent that they lack leisure activities and friendships (this cannot be explained by their economic needs).
  • They cannot get rid of old or worthless things, even if they have no special value.
  • They do not want to distribute tasks or work with others unless others agree to do exactly as they do
  • They are stingy about spending money both against themselves and others; money is seen as something that should be saved for disasters that may occur in the future.

Personality Disorders Treatment

Personality disorders can have negative individual and societal consequences and cause problems for both the individual and the society in which that individual is involved. Therefore, the treatment of personality disorders is very important both individually and socially.

One of the most important steps in providing the appropriate treatment to the person is your cooperation with the specialist doctor and psychologist in this field. Psychotherapy and antidepressant drugs can be used together or separately depending on the situation.

Psychotherapy is an important part of the treatment of personality disorder. The method of treatment can be long-term individual therapy or group and family therapies. In addition, your doctor and psychologist may request some additional tests in order that we can better understand you and create an appropriate treatment plan during the evaluation process.

Early initiation of treatment and regular follow-up will increase the efficiency of the treatment. It is also worth knowing that patient, understanding and supportive approaches as well as regular and long-term therapies can be used to obtain results and he/she should not change physicians frequently.

The information on this page has been prepared by the Moodist Psychiatry and Neurology Hospital Medical Team.

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