What is Nutrition and Diet?

Nutrition, which is a concept as old as the history of humanity, first appeared in 1551, comes from the Latin word “nutrire” in the sense of nourishment, is one of the primary human needs. It is a phenomenon that is necessary for all living things to grow, develop, maintain their state of being healthy and continue their lives. Nutrition, as a physiological phenomenon, is to meet the energy required for the continuity of metabolic activities in our body from nutrients. On the other hand, it is an essential concept that needs not only to fill the stomach, but also to the emotions.

Diet, on the other hand, is a nutrition program prepared to ensure adequate and balanced nutrition in accordance with the age, gender, physical activity level, physiological and psychological status, nutritional habits and socio-economic status of the individual. Dieting is not a written list of prohibitions, full of restrictions, equivalent to starving.

Healthy Weight Loss and Weight Gain Nutrition Programs

Healthy weight gain and loss process is based on the individual’s body analysis (fat, muscle, water ratio, body mass index, etc.), nutritional history (diseases, bowel habits, drugs used, etc.), socio-demographic characteristics, and physical activity and biochemical findings. It covers sustainable nutrition programs that start with the calculation of daily energy needs. Food variety, balanced distribution of macro-micro nutrients, and water intake are the elements that form the basis of nutrition in both programs.

Eating healthy is one of the most important issues that we should pay attention to throughout our lives. Even though we are daunted when we talk about healthy eating, what we need to do is to eat enough and balanced nutrition. The important thing is that we can always eat healthy, not when we want to lose or gain weight. Our goal is to make it a habit and include it in our lives If we do not change our eating habits, we enter a vicious circle in the period of weight gain and loss. We act hastily in the weight loss process, we want immediate results. In our minds, we say “I want to lose weight because” and after listing our goals, when we are weighed, the figure showing our weight takes over the determination or indecision of our mind for a short time. Some want to achieve fast results by following very restrictive (very low in calories) diets. But when we remove bread, sugar and chocolate from our lives with the goal of losing weight, when we reach the ideal weight, our desire to eat that food may be more than the previous one. So we lose weight for just a moment (whether we lose muscle or fat). We are moving away from a long-term solution with adequate and balanced nutrition.

Psychological Approach to Diet and Weight Control Program

Decide on your goal, what you want in healthy eating, weight gain or loss process. Let your goal be so strong that when your motivation drops, remembering your goal will enable you to continue where you left off. Don’t see your body like a race car, when you aim to lose weight fast, your body may not meet it and your disappointment may turn you on. Don’t try to be perfect. Give yourself time, making a habit is a difficult process. When you have your ups and downs, don’t think “I didn’t succeed”. Continue where you left off. Do not forget that your goal, determination, awareness of what you are doing will lead you to the result. Your psychological ups and downs about nutrition will always make you experience repetitions. Ask, believe, and get support. In this process, what you eat and we are always with you…

Personalized Nutrition Plan

Personalized nutrition plan; These are the programs that are prepared individually with the patient, considering the patient’s height, weight, age, medical history, biochemical findings, social and economic aspects, physical activity, and sleep patterns. The purpose of these personalized programs is to provide the client with a lifelong adequate and balanced diet by providing them with healthy eating habits suitable for their daily life. The quality of life can be increased by creating personalized diet programs for diseases that can be treated, prevented, and reduced risks with nutrition. Why can’t you be one of them?

4+4 Healthy Nutrition Program

Moodist Hospital 4+4 Healthy Nutrition Program is a long-term weight management program. This program is designed to help you break unhealthy habits and adopt healthy new ones. The 4+4 Healthy Eating Program aims to make it simple and enjoyable for you to maintain a healthy weight for the rest of your life. The program can be carried out both physically and online.

Program Details:

  • 4 Examination
  • 4 Check
  • Detailed Nutritional History
  • Body Analysis
  • Evaluation of Blood Analysis List and Results
  • Diet Lists Appropriate for Your Disease, Social Life, Physical Activity Level, Physical/Emotional Hungers
  • Step by Step Acquisition of Healthy Eating Behaviour

Nutritional Therapy in Eating Disorders (Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa)

Eating disorder; They are mental disorders characterized by inappropriate eating or eating-related behaviours, which can significantly affect physical and psychological functions, have a chronic course and may be life-threatening, typically leading to functional impairment. Anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating are frequently encountered in eating disorders that have 8 classifications according to DSM-V. Nutrition is an essential concept that not only satisfies the stomach, but also needs and causes emotions.

Eating Disorders Treatment Centre

We reinforce our happiness with eating, we find ourselves in front of the refrigerator when we are sad, we take a jar of chocolate when we break up with our lover, we try to show our anger towards our family and friends, that is, we direct our diet for emotional reasons. Because the most important factor that triggers our desire to eat is the feeling of pleasure. When certain behaviours are exhibited or foods are consumed in the brain reward system, it creates a feeling of happiness by releasing dopamine and serotonin hormones. The increase in the sense of pleasure and happiness leads us to repeat the eating behaviour in negative emotions. Emotional hunger is not the hunger we feel for activities necessary for our body, but the hunger of our brain that is signalled to deal with our emotions. We eat to feel good, not to fill our stomach. The brain cannot perceive the stomach at that moment and concentrates on the emotions. First of all, if there is such a situation, start by accepting it, because it is your emotions that are hungry, not your stomach.

With the habit of overeating, you will not only gain weight but also damage your stomach and intestines. In the long term, high blood pressure; diabetes; diseases such as gallbladder disorders, heartburn, ulcers may occur. If you have difficulty in stopping yourself and feel regret about what you eat, do not hesitate to seek professional help.

You can increase the release of serotonin by taking a walk in the fresh air instead of eating chocolate to get the ‘Serotonin’, which is secreted from our body and we know as the happiness hormone. In addition, you can consume foods rich in Serotonin such as eggs, chicken, milk, oranges, and tangerines and cocoa. You can add dairy products, eggs, red meat, dark green leafy vegetables to your daily diet. In addition, low-fat diets can negatively affect the nervous system and lead to depression. For this reason, while we include healthy fats such as olive oil, hazelnut oil, walnuts, hazelnuts or almonds in our meals, it is important to avoid saturated fats such as margarine and butter as they can cause difficulty in concentration, sleep problems or fatigue.

Our application protocol as nutrition and dietetics department for eating disorders clients is as follows.

  • The nutritional history of the counselee (evaluation of eating status, personal and family history, physical health, etc.) is prepared.
  • Anthropometric measurements (height, weight, fat, muscle, water ratio, BMI) are made.
  • Planning is made according to biochemical findings and nutritional needs.
  • The daily energy and macro-micronutrient amounts are calculated in accordance with the data in the evaluation of the client.
  • The diet of the patient with an eating disorder is decided by the internal medicine doctor. Meal planning is made after the appropriate choice is made for the patient from oral/enteral/parenteral nutrition. Establishing a regular eating habit and preventing dieting without restriction are among the first goals.
  • Foods that should not be eaten are determined. Foods are grouped on a scale from hardest to medium. Starting with the easiest to eat, small amounts of food are gradually included in the person’s diet. He is asked not to vomit when he eats them.
  • Weekly body analysis is done. When necessary (life-threatening patients with very low BMI, less energy intake than basal metabolic rate, etc.), these frequencies are increased. Weighing in the session allows the wrong evaluations about the weight to be spoken immediately. Bringing order to weighing reduces body control behaviour. Body weight shows natural changes from day to day according to fluid balance, bowel movements, menstrual period, etc. Frequent weighing results in misinterpretation of these natural changes.
  • In eating disorders, daily eating follow-up is done with one-to-one observation (with the kitchen team and the body in the treatment team), nutrition diary or online communication in polyclinic patients. The problem is made controllable by raising awareness with the eating behaviour that was previously considered automatic and uncontrollable to the client.
  • A 0.5-1.4 kg/week target is set for controlled weight gain at low BMI in anorexia nervosa patients. Almost every client is afraid of gaining weight. The aim of treatment is to develop control over the eating behaviour of the person. If there is no life-threatening risk regarding weight, muscle and fat percentage, it is necessary not to set a weight target until eating habits stabilize. In very low weight patients, the first goal is weight gain.
  • Nutrition education (including ideal weight range, effects of foods on physical and mental health, physical consequences of vomiting and laxative use behaviours, energy balance, and effects of hunger, adequate and balanced nutrition) is given with weekly plans for eating disorders clients.

Don’t starve your stomach and your emotions, and don’t overeat. Feed them both with the right foods, at the right time, in the right amount…

Childhood Nutrition

School age is the period in which physical, cognitive and social growth and development are accelerated, the speed of emotional development increases, and lifelong behaviours begin to be acquired, covering the 6-12 age group. Therefore, acquiring well-developed nutritional habits as well as adequate and balanced nutrition prevents nutritional problems that may arise in the future and contributes to the development of the child.

The child, who consciously participates in social life for the first time during the school age, gets used to a different environment from home and family, develops nutritional habits, starts to eat with friends outside the home, and his nutritional needs increase. Studies show that children who cannot provide sufficient nutritional diversity and who have wrong eating habits fall behind both physically and mentally, such as a decrease in growth and development speed, concentration disorders, decrease in learning capacity and decrease in activity speed. Therefore, the purpose of the child’s nutrition; to ensure normal, healthy growth and development and positive eating habits.

Nutrition in children should be arranged according to the age, gender, body weight and physical activity of the child. In the nutrition of school children, the basic principles of nutrition are to provide nutritional diversity, maintain a healthy body weight, balanced distribution of macronutrients (carbohydrate, protein, fat), adequate intake of vitamins and minerals, and limiting sugar and sugary foods. If we examine the food groups for these principles;

  1. Milk, cheese and yogurt provide protein, calcium and vitamin D, which are essential for children to have strong bones, teeth and muscles. 2-3 servings of this group should be consumed per day.
  2. Meat, chicken, fish, eggs, legumes, oilseeds provide protein, iron, zinc, iodine and B vitamins necessary for strong muscles. 2-3 servings of these foods should be consumed per day.
  3. Bread and cereals contain B vitamins, iron, minerals and fibre. Due to the high content of carbohydrates, they provide the energy needed for children’s activities. 5-9 portions of this group of foods should be consumed per day.
  4. Vegetables contain vitamins A and C, complex carbohydrates and fibre. It also contains certain amounts of B vitamins, potassium, calcium and other minerals. 3-4 servings should be consumed per day.
  5. Fruits contain vitamins A and C, potassium and other minerals. It is effective in the formation of resistance against diseases, cell regeneration, tissue repair and protection of skin and eye health, protection of cognitive functions, protection of bone and dental health, and regular functioning of the intestines. 2-3 servings of fruit should be consumed per day.

Nutrition During Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

Pregnancy and lactation are natural events for every woman of childbearing age. There are many factors that affect maternal and infant health during these periods. These; maternal age (births under 18 or over 35), the number of pregnancies/multiple pregnancies, the period between the last two pregnancies, chronic diseases, drug use, genetic structure and most importantly, adequate and balanced nutrition. Healthy generations form the basis of a healthy society. In order for children to be born healthy and for their development, mothers should be made aware of the development of the baby, the production of breast milk / breastfeeding, the increase in their need for nutrients, and accordingly their adequate and balanced nutrition and protection of their health during pregnancy and lactation.

Nutrition During Pregnancy

There is an important relationship between the nutrition of the pregnant woman and the health of the baby in the womb. The physical and mental growth and development of the baby in the mother’s womb is possible with the mother’s adequate and balanced nutrition during her pregnancy.

Problems that may occur in the baby due to inadequate and unbalanced nutrition of the mother during pregnancy:

  • Premature birth,
  • Low birth weight baby (birth weight less than 2500g),
  • Baby births with insufficient physical and mental development,
  • Diseases such as anaemia, dental caries, osteomalacia when increasing needs cannot be met,
  • The risk of toxaemia in pregnant women,
  • Edema due to insufficient protein intake,
  • Stillbirths.

These problems, which may occur as a result of inadequate and unbalanced nutrition, are more common in women under the age of 18 (adolescent pregnant women) and women over 35 years of age, and in women who become pregnant at frequent intervals (less than 2 years) and have multiple pregnancies (twins, triplets).

Monitoring of weight gain during pregnancy is of great importance. The pregnant woman should gain 1 kg each month in the first 3 months and 1.5-2 kg in the next 6 months. Total weight gain during pregnancy should be 9-14 kg. Weight gain of less than 7 kg endanger the health of mother and baby. If the mother is obese before pregnancy, she should gain less weight. The importance of nutrition should be constantly explained to the mother. It should also be emphasized that when the weight gain is low, the efficiency of breast milk will decrease.

General nutritional recommendations for the pregnancy period are:

  • At least 3 litters of water should be drunk daily.
  • Caffeine, alcohol, pills, some spices, sweeteners, chemical foods should be avoided.
  • Label must be read (read sweetener or MSG – additives information).
  • Salad should not be consumed outside.
  • Fish should be well cleaned.
  • Deep-bottom fish should be avoided as they contain heavy metals (sea bass, mullet, bluefish, red mullet, turbot, haddock)
  • Surface fish can be consumed (Anchovy, not from the Sea of Marmara, horse mackerel, mackerel, bonito, catfish, cod, sardines).
  • You can have milk dessert, ice cream or wafers 1-2 times a week.
  • Mouldy unpasteurized cheeses should be avoided (listeria bacteria may occur, leading to premature birth).
  • Herbal teas and parsley cause uterine contractions and should be avoided.
  • Tea and coffee cause head and neck anomalies in the baby, they should not be consumed frequently.
  • Fizzy drinks and fruit juices can cause both sugar and gas problems. You should stay away.
  • Homemade unsweetened compote or fruit juice can be consumed.
  • Raw meat and delicatessen products are prohibited, which can cause miscarriage and damage to the baby’s brain.
  • Pumpkin seeds can be consumed once a week.

Nutrition During Breastfeeding

Breastfeeding is the most appropriate feeding method for the healthy growth and development of the baby. It has a biological and psychological effect on the health of the mother and baby. The need for energy and nutrients during breastfeeding is higher than during pregnancy. If the mother is well nourished during pregnancy, she has a fat store that can partially meet her needs. With the use of this fat store, the mother loses weight in the first weeks following the birth. With a personalized nutrition plan, adequate and balanced nutrition should be continued during the lactation period. Because being a “mother” is a miracle of a woman… Breast Milk, which baby met as soon as he was born, is also a gift for a baby… The energy required for milk production during the lactation period is provided from two sources: 1. Energy stored as body fat during pregnancy 2. Energy from food groups. So, do we have any suggestions to increase Breast Milk efficiency? Of course yes.

    • Love, patience, dedication,
    • Correct breastfeeding technique (make sure the baby takes the areola along with the nipple),
    • Adequate fluid intake (Water (2.5-3 litters per day), consume foods such as compote),
    • Yogurt (start with half a glass, increase to 1 glass if it does not cause gas),
    • Milk (it can cause gas, you can reduce its gas-causing effect if it is flavored with things like cocoa),
    • Foods such as Onion, Garlic (can cause gas, consume carefully),
    • Fennel, Oats, Chamomile Tea, Dates, Beets, Almonds, Hazelnuts, Cumin, Figs, Apricots, Tahini, Dill, Barley, Coriander, Fenugreek increase breast milk.
    • Tea, coffee reduce milk production, be careful not to consume.

But still, remember, no food is miraculous. In this special process, do not forget to get support from the specialist with personalized programs.

Diabetes Nutrition

Diabetes Mellitus; It is a chronic and progressive disease characterized by complete or partial insufficiency of the secretion of insulin hormone (regulates the use of blood sugar in the body) from the pancreas, and hyperglycaemia as a result of its deficiency, in which carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism is impaired.

Nutrition therapy in individuals with diabetes is fundamental in the control and management of diabetes. Care of diabetics; It involves maintaining a balance between nutritional therapy, exercise, and medication. A comprehensive assessment of the eating habits and preferences of each individual with diabetes will provide the information necessary for the regulation of the individual’s nutrition program. The diet of an individual with diabetes is not different from the diet of a healthy person in terms of needs. The biggest difference; When the food is eaten, The amount of the food, The content of the food.

General nutritional recommendations for people with diabetes are as follows:

  • The meal plan of the person with diabetes should include a variety of foods;
    For adequate and balanced nutrition per day;

    • 6-11 servings of grain group
    • 2-3 servings of meat group
    • 3-5 servings of vegetables
    • 2-4 servings of fruit group
    • 2-3 servings of milk group
    • 2 portion oil groups can be selected.
  • It is important that 3 main and 3 snacks are in appropriate time periods and at approximately the same time every day.
  • Fried foods should be avoided.
  • The fibre content of your diet should be increased with the consumption of vegetables, legumes, whole grains and salads.
  • Foods with high glycaemic index such as melon, watermelon, grape, fig, dried apricot, apricot, banana, corn, carrot, pea, rice should be avoided.
  • Whole grain breads such as rye should be preferred.
  • Honey, jam, fruit juice should not be consumed.
  • If there is fruit in the snacks, milk, yogurt, buttermilk or oily seeds such as walnuts and almonds should be preferred with it.
  • Salt intake should be restricted.
  • Tea, coffee, linden, herbal teas (with sweetener), diet coke, diet light soda, soda and mineral water can be drunk.
  • Alcohol consumption should be limited. Alcohol should not be consumed on an empty stomach and alone due to hypoglycaemia.
  • If you are not at your ideal weight, reach it, insulin at the ideal weight will meet the body’s needs and your blood glucose level will remain at normal levels.

Every program should be personalized, so guide your nutrition with your dietician, stay healthy…

Special Nutrition for Stomach and Intestinal Patients

The health of our stomach and intestines, which make up our digestive system, where digestion, absorption, and excretion functions take place, or the healing of an existing disease is also dependent on nutrition. Long-term persistence of bloating, indigestion, constipation, diarrhea, dumping syndrome, nausea, vomiting, ulcer, reflux and gastritis indicates functional digestive system disorders. These stomach and intestinal diseases, which appear in almost one out of every three people can be treated with consuming natural foods instead of processed foods, including probiotic foods (kefir, etc.), eating little and often, not consuming acidic drinks, Eating in the form of small bites and chewing more, paying attention to which foods (milk, broccoli, etc.) they are intolerant by evaluating the individual’s body, personalized nutrition programs with dietary changes, such as not consuming food too hot or cold.

Inpatient Nutrition and Diet Services

  • Inpatient nutrition and diet department; it provides preventive health services in order to prevent diseases that may occur as a result of unbalanced nutrition, treat the disease with a disease-specific nutrition program in existing diseases and / or improve the course of the disease, support the treatment processes of our patients treated in our hospital and to meet the special nutritional needs such as individual enteral and parenteral nutrition in comprehensive treatments.
  • By making on-site production within the hospital, it provides professional service that ensures adequate and balanced nutrition by ensuring that meals are prepared in correct and hygienic conditions under the control of a dietician.
  • Each hospitalized patient is evaluated by a dietician with a “Nutrition Evaluation Risk Form” within the first 24 hours.
  • According to the results of the evaluation, the patient’s diet is decided. The nutrition treatment program of the patient is created by the dietician. The kitchen and multidisciplinary team are informed.
  • The dietician makes all the controls during the preparation of the menus to be included in the determined nutritional therapy and until these menus reach the patients.
  • The dietician informs the patient and / or his family about his special diet, gives nutrition education and answers the patient’s questions.
  • Although oral intake is determined by the physician-dietician, the foods they take may differ due to personal and religious preferences (such as being vegetarian, picky eating losing weight). For this reason, a “special menu” is created with the cooperation of the patient and the dietician. A special menu prepared by the kitchen is presented to the patient.
  • In cases of eating disorders, the nutritional history of the patient is determined and the food menu of the patient is prepared individually by the dietician, taking into account all physiological and psychological conditions. These personalized programs are revised weekly.
  • Eating is monitored by a dietician in patients with eating disorders, and daily energy intake is calculated. Body analysis is performed at weekly intervals, if necessary, at more frequent intervals.
  • A one-on-one dietician interview is held in patients with eating disorders.
  • Weight loss diets, malnutrition or body analysis, which are deemed necessary to be followed, are performed by the dietician upon the patient’s own request.
  • While the patient is discharged, the diet list specially prepared for the patient and the nutrition program tailored to the person in need are prepared by the dietician in line with the requested diet consultation and are given to the patient by explaining them.

The information on this page has been prepared by the Moodist Psychiatry and Neurology Hospital Medical Team.

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